Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate or diagnose and treat neurological disorders

While neurology is a non-surgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is a neurosurgery

Significant overlap occurs between the fields of neurology and psychiatry, with the boundary between the two disciplines and the conditions they treat being somewhat nebulous. Neurological disorders include

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Aneurysm
  • Back pain
  • Bell’s palsy
  • Birth defects of the brain and spinal cord
  • Brain injury
  • Brain tumor
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Concussion
  • Dementia
  • Disk disease of the neck and lower back
  • Dizziness
  • Epilepsy
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Neuralgia
  • Neuropathy
  • Neuromuscular and related diseases
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Psychiatric conditions (severe depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder)
  • Scoliosis
  • Seizures
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Spinal deformity and disorders
  • Spine tumor
  • Stroke
  • Vertigo

Common procedures performed by neurologists include lumbar puncture, electroneurography, electromyography, electroencephalogram, tension test, neural biopsies, angiography, imaging tests such as CT, MRI, PET, etc, genetic testing, laboratory tests.

A primary care doctor might refer someone to a neurologist if they have symptoms that indicate a neurological condition, such as:

  • frequent or severe headaches
  • muscle weakness
  • confusion
  • dizziness
  • loss of coordination
  • partial or complete paralysis
  • sensory changes that affect the sense of touch, vision, smell, or taste