Vitiligo is a skin disorder that causes skin depigmentation. Melanin, a pigment produced by melanocytes in the skin, is responsible for the skin's colour. In addition, melanin functions as a natural sunscreen in our body, shielding our skin from damaging UV rays. Vitiligo can impact everyone. However, it is more frequent in people aged 10 to 30. According to statistics, it affects up to 1% of the overall population. It is a heritable disease, and more than 30% of Vitiligo patients are parents or siblings. Skin pigmentation damage can happen in any part of the body, including the mouth, hair, eyes, and ears. This disorder, however, is more noticeable in people with a darker complexion. It can be seen clinically as a single patch, many patches all over the body, or a segmental pattern. In addition, it is sometimes linked to various medical disorders such as thyroid illness, anaemia, Addison's disease, and polyendocrinopathy syndrome. As a result, it necessitates a thorough medical examination. Vitiligo is a chronic disease with a widely varied course. Occasionally, spontaneous repigmentation occurs in a few regions, particularly those more exposed to the sun. Rapidly progressing Vitiligo can cause significant depigmentation, including complete loss of colour in the skin and hair.
COMPLICATIONS OF VITILIGO:
● Easy sunburns
● Skin cancers
● Social stigma and
● Associated medical conditions (thyroid disease)
1. Sunscreen: It is essential for preventing sunburns and skin damage. To avoid sunburn, any sunscreen with a sun protection factor is a viable option. Wear sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher at all times.
2. Cosmetic concealment: The primary goal of concealing with dyes is to hide the white spots. Over-the-counter preparations are available in a variety of colour colours and are simple to apply.
3. Repigmentation: There are drugs available for repigmenting Vitiligo patches, which should be administered under medical supervision. These medications include
When the Vitiligo spot is small and persistent, or when Vitiligo is evident on the lips, surgical depigmentation procedures are performed. The surgical techniques are as follows:
● Mini grafting
● Skin blister grafting
Mini grafting is a type of grafting that is done on a minor grafting of skin blisters.
When there is significant Vitiligo with limited regular skin patches, depigmentation of those patches is done with specific lotions to preserve skin tone consistency (cosmetic purpose).