Early Pregnancy Miscarriage

BY Dr. Sumeetkaur Mehta , MBBS, DNB Published on December 28, 2021

What do you understand by Miscarriage?

Miscarriage is defined as the spontaneous loss of fetus before it is viable, before the 20th week of pregnancy. The medical term for miscarriage is termed as “Spontaneous Abortion”. Miscarriage is seen as the most common and distressing complications allied with early pregnancy that’s being faced by most of the women across the globe in the recent times. Studies and Researches show that, “An appraised 85% of miscarriages are chronicled to happen before 12 weeks of pregnancy”. Although miscarriages might sound very common but it can be a very harrowing and devastating experience for the ones who are suffering.


The very initial and foremost symptom of miscarriage is vaginal spotting or bleeding, which varies from slight brownish discharge to very heavy bleeding. It’s not just this one symptom that’s been sighted in the people who suffered miscarriages but also have a long list which includes as given below:

  •  Cramping and severe pain in abdomen
  • Mild to severe back pain
  • Fluid discharge
  • Feeling light-headed
  • Dizziness
  • Tissue or clotted discharge from vagina
  • Contractions

In case if you are pregnant and you are experiencing any of the above listed symptoms then you are advised to immediately see the doctor, or you are advised to visit any nearby clinic as soon as possible.


It may be difficult to differentiate a very early miscarriage from a late period. In fact, many miscarriages happen before a person even knows they’re pregnant. In general, a miscarriage will cause more intense symptoms than a menstrual period. For example:

  • Your menstrual flow may be comparatively similar from month to month with heavy days and light days. A miscarriage can also have heavy and light days, but bleeding may be especially heavy at times and are observed to last longer than you’re used to.
  • Bleeding from a miscarriage may also contain large clots and tissue you don’t normally see during your period.
  • Cramps can be a part of your normal monthly cycle, but with a miscarriage, they may be particularly painful as the cervix dilates..

What is incomplete miscarriage?

The condition of miscarriage may be incomplete if:

  • Your bleeding is particularly heavy
  • You have a fever
  • An ultrasound reveals there’s still tissue in your uterus

If the above given conditions are seen in your case, then your doctor may suggest a dilation and curettage (which is casually termed as D and C)which is a surgical procedure done to remove the remaining tissue. This procedure is done under general or regional anaesthesia, and is considered to be safe. D and C doesn’t usually lead to long-term complications.


There is not just a normal miscarriage but are categorised into various types of miscarriages which include:

  1. Threatened Miscarriage: Some bleeding in early pregnancy with lower backache where the cervix stays closed. In this case the pregnancy continues.
  2. Inevitable or incomplete miscarriage: Abdominal or back pain, bleeding, an open cervix. If the cervix is seen to be open then the miscarriage is considered to be inevitable.
  3. Complete miscarriage: The embryo empties out of the uterus. Bleeding and pain subside quickly.
  4. Missed miscarriage: The embryo has died, but there are no other symptoms such as bleeding or pain.
  5. Recurrent miscarriage: This is defined as three or more miscarriages during the first trimester

Causes of miscarriage

When miscarriage is thought to be a natural syndrome or natural complication, here is a clear explanation of Miscarriage that can happen for wide range of reasons:

  1. Placental problems: If the placenta develops abnormally, then the blood supply from the mother to the baby is interrupted.
  2. Chromosome problems: When foetus receives wrong number of chromosomes, it leads to the abnormal development of the foetus. Miscarriages that occur during the first trimester are mainly related to chromosomal abnormalities in the baby.
  3. Abnormal structured wombs: The abnormally shaped wombs and the development of fibroids (which are also known as non-cancerous growths) in the womb can put the developing foetus at greater risks.
  4. PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome): This condition occurs when the ovaries are too large in size which further leads to the hormonal imbalances.
  5. Lifestyle influences: Habits such as smoking, drinking alcohol, or consuming illegal drugs can also lead to miscarriage
  6. Weakened Cervix: The cervix is known as the neck of the womb so when the muscles of cervix are weak, they may open up too early during the time of pregnancy, which further results in miscarriage.

Action taken during miscarriage

The aim of treatment following or during a miscarriage is to prevent haemorrhaging (also known as bleeding) and infection. Normally, the body expels the foetal tissue on its own, especially earlier in the pregnancy. However, if it does not seem to work then, a doctor may perform a dilation and curettage (D and C).

Preventions to be acknowledged to avoid miscarriages

You do not have to stress yourself to adapt a posh and unaffordable lifestyle instead you just have to adapt few simple lifestyles behaviours that can reduce the risk of miscarriages are as follows:-

  • Eating healthful diet
  • Avoid smoking, drinking alcohol, and also stop consuming illicit drugs during pregnancy
  • Maintain healthy weight before and especially during pregnancy
  • Be very careful and aware in order to avoid certain infections, such as German measles (Measles is known to be a very highly contagious disease that can further lead to deadly and life-threatening complications which is caused by the rubella virus which is seen spreading through direct contact with a person who already has that virus or through the droplets in the air).


Miscarriage isn’t your fault and so don’t keep blaming yourself if ever you face such a complication. And if ever such distressing complication arises, take your time to overcome it instead of being mentally, emotionally and physically disturbed and depressed. It’s understood that everything takes time to recover and this is one among them too and everyone has their own respective time for their emotional and mental recovery. You don’t have to rush for a quick recovery and at the same time you don’t have to pretend as you’ve got over it and made it very simple and easy for yourself just for anyone else’s sake. And if you feel that you need a shoulder to lean on or a person who can support you and handle you calmly and wisely during such a situation is also not any sort of abnormal feeling or abnormal thought. It’s all fine to feel all such and you aren’t alone in such a journey. So pick yourself up with great strength, calmness and try overcoming such a situation if you ever get to face.


Dr. Sumeetkaur Mehta , MBBS, DNB

Gynecology & Obstetrics

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