Early Pregnancy Miscarriage

BY Dr. Sumeetkaur Mehta , MBBS, DNB Published on December 28, 2021

What do you understand by Miscarriage?

Miscarriage is defined as the spontaneous loss of fetus before it is viable, before the 20th week of pregnancy. The medical term for miscarriage is termed as “Spontaneous Abortion”. In recent times, it has emerged as the most common and distressing complication associated with early pregnancy, affecting a significant number of women worldwide. Studies and research indicate that approximately 85% of miscarriages occur before 12 weeks of pregnancy.Although miscarriages might sound very common but it can be a very harrowing and devastating experience for the ones who are suffering.


The very initial and foremost symptom of miscarriage is vaginal spotting or bleeding, which varies from slight brownish discharge to very heavy bleeding. It’s not just this one symptom that’s been sighted in the people who suffered miscarriages but also have a long list which includes as given below:

  •  Cramping and severe pain in abdomen
  • Mild to severe back pain
  • Fluid discharge
  • Feeling light-headed
  • Dizziness
  • Tissue or clotted discharge from vagina
  • Contractions


It may be difficult to differentiate a very early miscarriage from a late period. In fact, many miscarriages happen before a person even knows they’re pregnant. In general, a miscarriage will cause more intense symptoms than a menstrual period. For example:

  • Your menstrual flow may be comparatively similar from month to month with heavy days and light days. A miscarriage can also have heavy and light days, but bleeding may be especially heavy at times and are observed to last longer than you’re used to.
  • Bleeding from a miscarriage may also contain large clots and tissue you don’t normally see during your period.
  • Cramps can be a part of your normal monthly cycle, but with a miscarriage, they may be particularly painful as the cervix dilates..

What is incomplete miscarriage?

The condition of miscarriage may be incomplete if:

  • Your bleeding is particularly heavy
  • You have a fever
  • An ultrasound reveals there’s still tissue in your uterus

If your case exhibits the above-mentioned conditions, your doctor may recommend a surgical procedure known as dilation and curettage (commonly referred to as D and C) to remove the remaining tissue. This procedure is performed under general or regional anesthesia and is considered safe. D and C doesn’t usually lead to long-term complications.


There is not just a normal miscarriage but are categorised into various types of miscarriages which include:

  • Threatened Miscarriage: Some bleeding in early pregnancy with lower backache where the cervix stays closed. In this case the pregnancy continues.
  • Inevitable or incomplete miscarriage: Abdominal or back pain, bleeding, an open cervix.
  • Complete miscarriage: The embryo empties out of the uterus. Bleeding and pain subside quickly.
  • Missed miscarriage: The embryo has died, but there are no other symptoms such as bleeding or pain.

Causes of miscarriage

When considering miscarriage as a natural syndrome or complication, it is important to provide a clear explanation of the wide range of reasons that can cause miscarriage.

  • Placental problems: If the placenta develops abnormally, it interrupts the blood supply from the mother to the baby.
  • Chromosome problems: When foetus receives wrong number of chromosomes, it leads to the abnormal development of the foetus. Miscarriages that occur during the first trimester are mainly related to chromosomal abnormalities in the baby.
  • Abnormal structured wombs: Abnormally shaped wombs and the development of non-cancerous growths known as fibroids in the womb can pose greater risks to the developing fetus.
  • PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome): This condition occurs when the ovaries are too large in size which further leads to the hormonal imbalances.
  • Lifestyle influences: Habits such as smoking, drinking alcohol, or consuming illegal drugs can also lead to miscarriage
  • Weakened Cervix: When the muscles of the cervix are weak, they may open up too early during pregnancy, which can lead to miscarriage. The cervix, known as the neck of the womb, is responsible for this condition.

Action taken during miscarriage

The aim of treatment following or during a miscarriage is to prevent haemorrhaging (also known as bleeding) and infection. Normally, the body expels the foetal tissue on its own, especially earlier in the pregnancy. However, if it does not seem to work then, a doctor may perform a dilation and curettage (D and C).

Preventions to be acknowledged to avoid miscarriages

You do not have to stress yourself to adapt a posh and unaffordable lifestyle instead you just have to adapt few simple lifestyles behaviours that can reduce the risk of miscarriages are as follows:-

  • Eating healthful diet
  • Avoid smoking, drinking alcohol, and also stop consuming illicit drugs during pregnancy
  • Maintain healthy weight before and especially during pregnancy


Miscarriage isn’t your fault and so don’t keep blaming yourself if ever you face such a complication. And if ever such distressing complication arises, take your time to overcome it . You don’t have to rush for a quick recovery and at the same time you don’t have to pretend as you’ve got over it and made it very simple and easy for yourself just for anyone else’s sake. So pick yourself up with great strength, calmness and try overcoming such a situation if you ever get to face.


Dr. Sumeetkaur Mehta , MBBS, DNB

Gynecology & Obstetrics

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